Terminology Tuesday Answer

January 25, 2021 — Hippus is a spasmodic or rhythmic contraction of the eye's pupil, a symptom of some neurological conditions.

January 19, 2021 — Infundibulum is a connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. It contains the hypophyseal portal veins and axons of hypothalamic neurons that project to the posterior pituitary.

January 12, 2021 — Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis (VE) is a fatal progressive neurological disorder found only in the Sakha population of central Siberia. About 15 new cases are reported each year. Causative agents, the origin of the disease, and involved candidate genes are currently unknown. Those inflicted with the disease survive for a period of only a few months to several years. Initially, infected patients experience severe headaches, delirium, lethargy, meningism, bradykinesia, and incoordination. A small percentage of patients die during the acute phase as a result of a severe coma. All cases are fatal.

January 5, 2021 — Neurosarcoidosis is a complication of sarcoidosis in which inflammation occurs in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the nervous system. Sudden facial weakness is the most common symptom. Bodily functions, such as temperature regulation and sleep, can be affected. Muscle weakness or sensory losses can occur with peripheral nerve involvement. 

December 29, 2020 — Basal electrode is any electrode located near the base of the skull (see foramen ovale electrode, nasopharyngeal electrode; sphenoidal electrode).

December 22, 2020 — Tau proteins stabilize microtubules and are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and less common elsewhere. Defective tau proteins are found in Alzheimer’s disease. High levels of tau protein in fluid bathing the brain are linked to poor recovery after head trauma.

December 15, 2020 — Common EEG input test is a procedure in which the same pair of EEG electrodes are connected to the two input terminals of all electroencephalograph channels.

December 8, 2020 — Porencephaly is a rare disorder of the central nervous system in which a cyst or cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid develops in the brain. It is usually the result of damage from stroke or infection after birth (the more common type). It can also be caused by abnormal development before birth, which can be inherited and less common). Symptoms of porencephaly include delayed growth and development, spastic hemiplegia (slight or incomplete paralysis), hypotonia (low muscle tone), seizures (often infantile spasms), and macrocephaly (large head) or microcephaly (small head). Children with porencephaly may have poor or absent speech development, epilepsy, hydrocephalus (accumulation of fluid in the brain), spastic contractures (shrinkage or shortening of the muscles), and mental retardation.

December 1, 2020 — Ammon’s horn sclerosis (AHS) is a maldevelopment disorder associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. This type of neuron cell loss, primarily in the hippocampus, can be observed in approximately 65% of people suffering from this form of epilepsy.

November 24, 2020 — Epileptic Nystagmus is a rare, ictal phenomenon characterized by rapid, repetitive eye movement during seizure activity.

November 10, 2020 — Wernicke's area is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked to speech (the other is Broca's area). It's involved in the production of written and spoken language. Damage caused to Wernicke's area results in receptive fluent aphasia — the ability to fluently connect words but will lack meaning. This is unlike non-fluent aphasia in which the person will use meaningful words, but in a non-fluent, telegraphic manner.

October 26, 2020 — Semantic dementia is a progressive loss of the ability to remember the meaning of words, faces, and objects, which results from shrinkage of the temporal lobes of the brain. Patients often present with the complaint of word-finding difficulties. As the disease progresses, behavioral and personality changes are often seen.

October 20, 2020 — Bilateral Perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP) is a rare neurological characterized mainly by partial paralysis of muscles on both sides of the face, tongue, jaws, and throat; difficulties in speaking, chewing, and swallowing (dysphagia); and/or seizures (epilepsy). While the exact cause of BPP is not fully understood, this condition is thought to be due to improper development of the outer surface of the brain (cerebral cortex) during embryonic growth.

October 6, 2020 — Hypsarrhythmia is a pattern consisting of diffuse high voltage (.300 mV) irregular slow waves interspersed with multiregional spikes and sharp waves over both hemispheres.

September 29, 2020 — Aicardi's Syndrome is a disorder that occurs almost exclusively in females. It's characterized by absent or underdeveloped tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (agenesis or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum); seizures beginning in infancy (infantile spasms), which tend to progress to recurrent seizures (epilepsy) that can be difficult to treat; and chorioretinal lacunae, which are defects in the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).

September 22, 2020 — Pyrexia is a raised body temperature; fever. Vespa (2005 J Clin Neurophysiol) reports that pyrexia (>38ºC) is a secondary insult which can arise from ictal events and is a significant predictor of mortality.

September 15, 2020 — Gerstmann syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that can occur as the result of a brain injury or as a developmental disorder. The syndrome is characterized by the loss or absence of four cognitive abilities — the loss of the ability to express thoughts in writing (agraphia, dysgraphia), to perform simple arithmetic problems (acalculia), to recognize or indicate one's own or another's fingers (finger agnosia), and to distinguish between the right and left sides of one's body.

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